Exploring unexplored biomarkers of oxidative distress and their use

Harsh Thakkar, Rameswari Eerla, Shriya Gangakhedkar, Ravi P. Shah

Our understanding of disease has evolved with time and along with that the paradigm of drug discovery has been shifted.  This new understanding allows us to investigate new targets based on fundamental biochemistry at the cellular level. Many lifestyle-related diseases have a connection with stress conditions. Oxidative stress ensues due to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants produced in the body. ROS are considered to be harmful when produced in excess and they are associated with the development of various diseases like Alzheimer's, Cancer, Infertility and Parkinson's. Oxidative stress biomarkers can be used to assess the severity of such diseases, while biochemical pathways and progression understanding can be used to develop new targets as prophylactic drugs. Thus, discovering biomarker responsible for the aetiology of disease could be helpful in understanding the course of disease. In this review, we have emphasized the role of biomarker, their whence, category, occurrence in biological fluids along with physiological concentrations and different methods available to assess the biomarker including critics. It also summarizes the clinical relevance and applicability of clinical methods in personalized health management to increase the longevity and quality of human life.