The genetics of Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD)

 A schematic diagram of the protein structure of Fibrocystin (FPC) and DZIP1L
Elsevier, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease, Volume 1868, 1 April 2022
Goggolidou P., Richards T.

ARPKD is a genetically inherited kidney disease that manifests by bilateral enlargement of cystic kidneys and liver fibrosis. It shows a range of severity, with 30% of individuals dying early on and the majority having good prognosis if they survive the first year of life. The reasons for this variability remain unclear. Two genes have been shown to cause ARPKD when mutated, PKHD1, mutations in which lead to most of ARPKD cases and DZIP1L, which is associated with moderate ARPKD. This mini review will explore the genetics of ARPKD and discuss potential genetic modifiers and phenocopies that could affect diagnosis.