From genetics to systems biology of stress-related mental disorders

Elsevier, Neurobiology of Stress,  Volume 15, November 2021, article 100393
Shareefa Dalvie, Chris Chatzinakos, Obada Al Zoubi, Foivos Georgiadis, Lee Lancashire, Nikolaos P. Daskalakis

Many individuals will be exposed to some form of traumatic stress in their lifetime which, in turn, increases the likelihood of developing stress-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (ANX). The development of these disorders is also influenced by genetics and have heritability estimates ranging between ∼30 and 70%. In this review, we provide an overview of the findings of genome-wide association studies for PTSD, depression and ANX, and we observe a clear genetic overlap between these three diagnostic categories. We go on to highlight the results from transcriptomic and epigenomic studies, and, given the multifactorial nature of stress-related disorders, we provide an overview of the gene-environment studies that have been conducted to date. Finally, we discuss systems biology approaches that are now seeing wider utility in determining a more holistic view of these complex disorders.