Oral human papillomavirus prevalence, persistence, and risk-factors in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults

 Alluvial plots denote transitions in oral HPV infection status (any genotype) over the first four study visits in a) HIV+ and b) HIV- participants who had at least 2 valid HPV tests before loss to follow up or completion of 4th visit.
Elsevier, Tumour Virus Research, Volume 13, June 2022
Riddell J., Brouwer A.F., Walline H.M., Campredon L.P., Meza R., Eisenberg M.C. et al.

Background: HIV has been shown to increase the likelihood of oral HPV infection. In this study, we evaluated the risk of oral HPV in HIV infected patients compared with HIV-negative controls. Methods: 101 healthy adult volunteers (HIV-) and 245 adults living with HIV infection (HIV+) were recruited from 5 academic medical centers. Questionnaires and saliva samples were obtained every 3–8 months over a period of 2 years (2015–2017). DNA was isolated from the saliva samples and tested for 18 high- and low-risk genotypes. Results: Oral HPV was detected in 23% of HIV + vs. 10% of HIV- participants (p < 0.0001). Men had a higher oral HPV prevalence than women (27% vs. 15% HIV+, p = 0.03, 16% vs. 5% HIV-, p = 0.01). Risk factors among HIV + participants included more lifetime deep kissing and oral sex partners, and history of AIDS. Persistent oral HPV was detected in 23% of HIV + vs. 5% of HIV- participants (p < 0.001). Among 8 HIV + participants with CD4 counts <200 cell/μL none had cleared their HPV infection during the study. Conclusions: Risk of oral HPV infection and persistence was significantly higher in HIV + adults with a history of poorly controlled HIV, which may put them at increased risk of HPV-associated cancer.