International Journal of Refrigeration, Volume 57, 1 October 2015,
In recent years, several emerging technologies in the domain of solid-state physics have been investigated as serious alternatives for future refrigeration, heat pumping, air conditioning, or even power generation applications. These technologies relate to what is called caloric energy conversion, i.e., barocalorics, electrocalorics, magnetocalorics, and elastocalorics. Of these technologies, the greatest progress has been observed in the domain of magnetic refrigeration. However, in the recent few years, significant research efforts have also been made in the field of electrocaloric and elastocaloric refrigeration. Many of these technologies suggest the possibility for improvements in energy efficiency, compactness, noise level, as well as a reduction in environmental impacts, so it seems very probable that they will start to fill particular market niches as a replacement for vapor-compression technology in the future.