Present and Future Energy Consumption of Buildings: Challenges and Opportunities towards Decarbonisation

Elsevier, e-Prime, 2021, 100002
M. Santamouris, K. Vasilakopoulou

The present article aims to present and discuss the energy and environmental reality in the building sector and critically investigate the future pathways towards its decarbonisation. The current economic and employment characteristics as well as the energy, environmental, climate and social impact of the building sector are analysed. The main current and future challenges related to overpopulation, climate change, urbanisation, energy consumption, material use and poverty are explored and evaluated. The recent building energy technological developments are explored and their current and future energy, environmental and economic potential is assessed. The main drivers determining the future energy consumption of the building sector are examined and their expected evolution is analysed. Representative scenarios on the future energy consumption are selectively presented. The proposed pathways towards the decarbonisation of the building sector are critically presented and the main advantages and potential problems are depicted.