Sustainable cities and human settlements

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 aims to "Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable." This goal acknowledges the growing importance of urban areas, as it's projected that by 2050, nearly 70% of the world's population will live in cities. Consequently, cities bear significant implications for sustainability, economic growth, and societal wellbeing.

Inclusivity is a key feature of sustainable cities. This refers to equitable access to opportunities, public services, and amenities, regardless of a person's background or circumstances. It implies the availability of affordable and adequate housing, thus addressing issues of homelessness and substandard living conditions.

Safety in cities means ensuring urban environments that protect their inhabitants from both physical harm and psychological distress. This involves addressing crime rates, traffic accidents, and potential hazards from poor infrastructure, while also considering the impacts of noise, pollution, and overcrowdedness on mental health.

Resilience is another important aspect, particularly in the face of climate change. Resilient cities can withstand and quickly recover from shocks such as natural disasters or economic crises. This involves aspects such as resilient infrastructure, disaster risk reduction strategies, and adaptive capacities at the community level.

Sustainability, finally, requires cities to function in a way that doesn't compromise future generations' ability to meet their own needs. This includes sustainable urban planning to reduce environmental impact, promote energy efficiency, and conserve resources. It also considers the importance of green spaces for biodiversity and the wellbeing of urban residents.

SDG 11 is interconnected with many other SDGs. For example, sustainable urban transport systems contribute to SDG 13 (Climate Action) by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Meanwhile, ensuring access to green and public spaces supports SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being).

Achieving sustainable cities and human settlements requires cooperation and participation from various stakeholders, including government authorities, urban planners, businesses, and citizens. Through their collective efforts, cities can be transformed into hubs of sustainability, resilience, and inclusivity, contributing significantly towards the realization of the SDGs.

This article supports SDGs 9 and 11 by exploring the technological aspects of the Internet of Things, emphasizing blueprints, complexity, challenges, and future directions to improve performance, network security, and stability.
This article supports SDG 11 by discussing Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) which may offer an unparalleled approach to combining sustainability and resilience while preserving ecosystems.
This Article supports SDGs 3 and 13 by providing assessments and knowledge gaps along Ghana’s coast on the aspects of SLR, subsidence and coastal vulnerability.
Millet is a staple crop in China. But how did it come about?
Climate change is driving the need for cool spaces, which currently relies largely on mechanical air conditioning that consumes power and contributes to emissions. This article examines how to create a passive cooling system with good ventilation using no mechanical equipment, achieving sub-ambient temperature cooling that could be extended to larger homes and structures. As such, it supports SDGs 3 (ensuring access to cool livable spaces), SDG 9 (more sustainable infrastructure to cool homes), and SDG 13 (reducing the need for traditional air conditioning).
Background: Housing quality is a crucial determinant of mental health. While the construction of high-rise buildings is a popular policy strategy for accommodating population growth in cities, there is considerable debate about the health consequences of living in poorly designed apartments. Drawing on three Australian state government apartment design policies introduced to improve apartment design quality, this study aimed to identify the combination of design requirements that were optimally supportive of positive mental health.
This study supports SDGs 9 and 15. The permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau has been significantly degraded becuase of global warming. This article assessed the future stability of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.
The authors of this paper conclude that reducing Ultraprocessed Drink Consumption could lower environmental impact and all-cause mortality risk; however, this was not shown for Ultraprocessed Foods. When categorizing food consumption by their degree of processing, trade-offs are observed for human and planetary health aspects.
this RCT attempts to incentivise fruits and vegetables purchase in India where the sector is largetly unorganised.The authors find that even though unorganised, the retailers were willing to participate in such a scheme which could have a widespread effect on population consumption pattern.
This chapter advances UN SDG goals 11, 13, and 9 by examining how cities can transform in the face of climate change and socio-ecological crises to become more sustainable and resilient.