Soil salinisation in Vojvodina - the Republic of Serbia

Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 50, June 2021
Grujic G., Vasin J., Belic M.

The processes of salinisation and alkalinisation of soil that caused the formation of different types of saline (halomorphic) soils are characteristic of the northern part of Serbia — the area of Vojvodina. These soils are characterized by poor physical and chemical properties due to a high content of salt and/or adsorbed Na+ ions because of which are being used to a limited extent in agricultural production, and more as pastures. From the aspect of pedogenetic conditions, loess deposits and alluvial terraces of large rivers (Danube, Sava and Tisza) as aeolian-glacial sediments are the most widespread parent rock on which saline soils were formed. In addition, arid climate including geomorphological, hydrological and hydro-geochemical conditions were the main factors of the formation of saline areas of Vojvodina. These processes can also occur as a result of the poor irrigation. The increase in the average annual and summer air temperature during the period 1981–2017 compared to 1961−1990 was recorded as well as more inequality in the precipitation regime in spatial distribution and increased evapotranspiration. Under such conditions the areas of saline soils will be certainly further expanding. According to the results of previous pedological research, saline soils cover about 10% of the total soil surface of Vojvodina. In the last few decades the extensive research has been conducted on the process of soil salinisation in the area of Vojvodina including qualitative and quantitative composition of salt in various systematic soil units. They have shown the possibility of transforming saline soils into productive soils through the application of complex land reclamation measures which require substantial financial and long-term time investments.