Traumatic brain injury: progress and challenges in prevention, clinical care, and research

The Lancet Neurology, Volume 21, Issue 11, November 2022, Pages 1004-1060,
ndrew I R Maas, David K Menon, Geoffrey T Manley, Mathew Abrams, Cecilia Åkerlund, Nada Andelic, Marcel Aries, Tom Bashford, Michael J Bell, Yelena G Bodien, Benjamin L Brett, András Büki, Randall M Chesnut, Giuseppe Citerio, David Clark, Betony Clasby, D Jamie Cooper, Endre Czeiter, Marek Czosnyka, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Véronique De Keyser, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Ari Ercole, Thomas A van Essen, Éanna Falvey, Adam R Ferguson, Anthony Figaji, Melinda Fitzgerald, Brandon Foreman, Dashiell Gantner, Guoyi Gao, Joseph Giacino, Benjamin Gravesteijn, Fabian Guiza, Deepak Gupta, Mark Gurnell, Juanita A Haagsma, Flora M Hammond, Gregory Hawryluk, Peter Hutchinson, Mathieu van der Jagt, Sonia Jain, Swati Jain, Ji-yao Jiang, Hope Kent, Angelos Kolias, Erwin J O Kompanje, Fiona Lecky, Hester F Lingsma, Marc Maegele, Marek Majdan, Amy Markowitz, Michael McCrea, Geert Meyfroidt, Ana Mikolić, Stefania Mondello, Pratik Mukherjee, David Nelson, Lindsay D Nelson, Virginia Newcombe, David Okonkwo, Matej Orešič, Wilco Peul, Dana Pisică, Suzanne Polinder, Jennie Ponsford, Louis Puybasset, Rahul Raj, Chiara Robba, Cecilie Røe, Jonathan Rosand, Peter Schueler, David J Sharp, Peter Smielewski, Murray B Stein, Nicole von Steinbüchel, William Stewart, Ewout W Steyerberg, Nino Stocchetti, Nancy Temkin, Olli Tenovuo, Alice Theadom, Ilias Thomas, Abel Torres Espin, Alexis F Turgeon, Andreas Unterberg, Dominique Van Praag, Ernest van Veen, Jan Verheyden, Thijs Vande Vyvere, Kevin K W Wang, Eveline J A Wiegers, W Huw Williams, Lindsay Wilson, Stephen R Wisniewski, Alexander Younsi, John K Yue, Esther L Yuh, Frederick A Zeiler, Marina Zeldovich, Roger Zemek,

raumatic brain injury (TBI) has the highest incidence of all common neurological disorders, and poses a substantial public health burden. TBI is increasingly documented not only as an acute condition but also as a chronic disease with long-term consequences, including an increased risk of late-onset neurodegeneration. The first Lancet Neurology Commission on TBI, published in 2017, called for a concerted effort to tackle the global health problem posed by TBI. Since then, funding agencies have supported research both in high-income countries (HICs) and in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In November 2020, the World Health Assembly, the decision-making body of WHO, passed resolution WHA73.10 for global actions on epilepsy and other neurological disorders, and WHO launched the Decade for Action on Road Safety plan in 2021. New knowledge has been generated by large observational studies, including those conducted under the umbrella of the International Traumatic Brain Injury Research (InTBIR) initiative, established as a collaboration of funding agencies in 2011. InTBIR has also provided a huge stimulus to collaborative research in TBI and has facilitated participation of global partners. The return on investment has been high, but many needs of patients with TBI remain unaddressed. This update to the 2017 Commission presents advances and discusses persisting and new challenges in prevention, clinical care, and research.