Two pandemics intertwined around one patient: Interstitial pneumonia as the first presentation of HIV/AIDS, be it Pneumocystis jirovecii, cytomegalovirus, SARS-CoV2 or all?-A case report

Time line of the clinical course. (A) Course before admission, (B) course from admission to death.
Elsevier, Heliyon, Volume 9, September 2023
Alsharif N., Elinav H., Keidar Haran T., Maly B., Dror D.

Concerns have been mounting regarding the underdiagnosis of HIV among respiratory co-infections associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The delay in recognizing HIV/AIDS may be attributed to the similarities in clinical, laboratory (lymphopenia) and imaging presentations, which are typical for advanced AIDS but could also be indicative of a COVID-19 infection. Herein, we present a case of a 38-year-old ultraorthodox Jew with a late diagnosis of AIDS in the context of COVID-19 infection. This occurred after several months of recurrent respiratory infections compounded by SARS-COV 2 infection, during which no HIV testing was conducted. As a result, a cascade of various opportunistic infections ensued, leading to an extended hospitalization period, ultimately culminating in the patient's demise despite receiving optimal treatment.