Current Trends and Future Developments on (Bio-) Membranes - Chapter 3: The environmental pollution’s influence on public health: general principles and case studies

Elsevier, Current Trends and Future Developments on (Bio-) Membranes: Membrane Technologies in Environmental Protection and Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities, Volume 1, 1 January 2022
Di Gennaro G., Papadopoli R., Licata F., Nobile C.G.A.

Pollution is perhaps the most severe problem that man will have to face in the coming decades. A 2016 estimate predicts that in 2050 we will count one premature death every 5s if air pollution is not attacked. This is a particularly serious threat in underdeveloped countries but as indicated by the WHO it remains the greatest risk factor for health in Europe as well. Quantifying the effects of pollution on human health is difficult due to the multitude of confounders. Furthermore, the cause-effect links between pollutants and pathologies are often not clear, since the different forms of pollution are interdependent. In this chapter the mechanisms through which different forms of pollution impact human health, with particular emphasis on air, water, soil, and noise pollution, are summarized. Estimates present in the literature that can give an idea of the health impact are also indicated. Finally, we reported famous case studies to show how the problem of pollution is widespread all over the world, from Delhi, to Italy, to Hong Kong.