This article looks at the challenges faced in handling the influx of migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees seeking protection, and for others a livelihood. However, at the rate that it had been going in the past, Global North countries found it difficult to handle the sudden influx. Bottlenecks occurred at the borders, and some were kept in detention facilities (US) and others in camps (European Union [EU]). There has been an abject failure in upholding international law, which according to the 1951 Geneva Conventions and 1967 Additional Protocol stipulate, countries are obligated to not conduct refoulement upon those seeking asylum if it is proven that they will not be safe, nor return to any other country where their safety is compromised. What complicates the matter is the current Covid-19 pandemic, as countries are exploiting the circumstances, violating international law in the name of protecting their citizens from the “spread” of Covid-19. A closer look at what America and EU have done to address both issues is done. The article concludes with suggestions on how to reform immigration policy based on the scholarly research found.
Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Third Edition), Volume 3, 2022, Pages 669-678,