Environmental Systems Science - Chapter 4: Predicting risks in an increasingly complex world

Elsevier, Environmental Systems Science, Theory and Practical Applications, 2021, Pages 89-133
Daniel A. Vallero

This chapter approaches environmental and human health risk from a systems perspective. It introduces exposure assessment methodologies, identifying failures of conventional methods. The chapter explains possible ways to augment them to address the large uncertainties in assessing and managing the risks to humans and ecosystems from chemicals and microbes.