The rate of anthropogenic activities, especially industrial ones, are annually increasing along with releasing a great volume of industrial wastewater currents to the environment worldwide. Therefore, identifying and investigating remediation approaches and technologies have state-of-the-art could help to dispose the hazardous sewage meeting to the sustainable and safe reuse. However, many conventional chemical (e.g., advanced oxidation processes, coagulation, and flocculation), physical (e.g., membrane filtrations and dissolved air flotation), as well as biological reactors (e.g., aerobic and anaerobic processes) could not provide environmental discharge standards for micropollutants originated from hazardous compounds (e.g., endocrine-disrupting compounds) present in final effluents as only stage. Therefore, discharging incomplete and unsafe effluents to water bodies and even soil brings an environmental and consequently health risk for each society. In this chapter, the recent studies carried out on the more useful and efficient hybrid techniques which ensure environmental limitations with regards to zero discharge will be evaluated by using scientific browsing tools such as Google Scholar, Science Direct, and other databases.
Mohammad Mehdi Golbini Mofrad, Iman Parseh, Mokhtar Mahdavi, Chapter 11 - Hazardous and industrial wastewaters: from cutting-edge treatment strategies or layouts to micropollutant removal, Editors: Abdul Mohammad and Wei Ang, Integrated and Hybrid Process Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment, Elsevier, 2021, Pages 233-251, ISBN 9780128230312,