Renewable energy resources are considered to be one of the most important power sources of the future as they are environmentally friendly and do not have carbon emissions. Because of their fundamental differences from synchronous generators used in large-scale power plants, renewable energy resources require novel solutions to be deployed, for example, inverter interfaces or storage devices. It is no secret that the share of renewable energy resources in the grid will only increase in the future, as nations around the world desperately search for answers to global warming and climate change. This means these nonconventional generation approaches and the operational challenges they bring along will proliferate. One of these is the stability of frequency and voltage. In order to mitigate their negative impact on system inertia and stability, novel components such as smart inverters are developed and deployed alongside with renewable energy resources. There are other novel components such as electric vehicles and distributed generators that are constantly added to the power system grid.
Power System Protection in Future Smart Grids: Achieving Reliable Operation with Renewable Energy, Electric Vehicles, and Distributed Generation, Volume , 1 January 2023,