Every year, stroke affects more than 15 million people around the world. Stroke is currently the second leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of disability in the United States. The cost of caring for stroke patients is projected to reach $183 million dollars by 2030, driven largely by improving life expectancy and a concomitant increase in the aged population. Ischemic stroke, caused by loss of blood flow to the brain due to an embolus or vessel thrombosis, is responsible for 87% of all strokes. Profound sex differences exist in ischemic stroke epidemiology and pathophysiology, impacting almost all facets of future stroke research and therapeutic development. In this chapter, we will focus on ischemic stroke and discuss sex differences in cerebral ischemia, including the role of sex in clinical stroke, stroke risk factors, and basic stroke pathophysiology.
Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology, Academic Press, 2019, Pages 41-59,