Wind Energy Engineering (Second Edition) - Chapter 32: Global rare earth supply, life cycle assessment, and wind energy

Elsevier, Wind Energy Engineering (Second Edition), A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines, 2023, Pages 475-487
Weng Z., Mudd G.M.

Wind energy has become one of the most significant sectors in the global renewable energy market. This chapter analyzes the global rare earth elements (REE) demands and associated environmental implications driven by the rapidly growing global wind energy demands. The NdFeB permanent magnet demand from wind turbines is a valuable case study to underpin and evaluate the environmental benefits of REE consumption and wind energy growth, as both of them are key areas of expected global clean energy supply and critical metal demands.