What is next for forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)

Elsevier, Separation and Purification Technology, Volume 156, Part 2, 17 December 2015, Pages 856-860
Tai-Shung Chung, Lin Luo, Chun Feng Wan, Yue Cui, GaryAmy


This short review summarizes our understanding and perspectives on FO and PRO processes and meaningful R&D in order to develop effective and sustainable FO and PRO technologies for water reuse and osmotic power generation.


Forward osmosis; FO membranes; PRO membranes; Integrated systems; Clean water; Osmotic energy