Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among human immunodeficiency -positive patients accessing treatment at health centers in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019: Community-based cross-sectional study

Elsevier, Heliyon, Volume 9, July 2023
Tariku M.K., Worede D.T., Belete A.H.

Background: To achieve an effective treatment outcome, Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) for people living with the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) needs at least a 95% adherence level. The aim was to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among patients accessing treatment at Health centers in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 770 HIV-positive patients from April 1 to May 10, 2019, in East Gojjam Zone. The study participants were selected by simple random computerized sampling methods. Primary data was collected from the patients through face-to-face interviews and home-to-home visits. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were done. Independent variables with a P-value of <0.2 in bivariable binary logistic regression analysis were considered for multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. A P-value of <0.05 was used as the cut-off point for the presence of statistical significance. Results: About 396 (51.8%) of the study participants had good adherence. Being 18–24 years old [Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.21–0.86], having a marital status of being widowed (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.14–0.58), having a disease duration of >10 years (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.24–0.94), taking a drug regimen of Tenofovir (TDF) + Lamivudine (3 TC) + Nevirapine (NVP) (AOR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.406.15), not being socially stigmatized (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34–0.78), and having not encountered an opportunistic infection (AOR = 3.91; 95% CI = 2.68–5.72) were significant factors. Conclusions: The level of adherence was low. Opportunistic infection prevention, reduction of social stigma, and other intervention activities should be strengthened to increase the level of adherence.