An analysis of existing national action plans for antimicrobial resistance—gaps and opportunities in strategies optimising antibiotic use in human populations

Elsevier, The Lancet Global Health, Volume 11, Issue 3, March 2023, Pages e466-e474
Esmita Charani PhD, Prof Marc Mendelson PhD, Scott J C Pallett MRCP, Raheelah Ahmad PhD, Mirfin Mpundu PhD, Oluchi Mbamalu PhD, Candice Bonaconsa MSc, Vrinda Nampoothiri DPharm, Sanjeev Singh PhD, Nathan Peiffer-Smadja PhD, Vanesa Anton-Vazquez MD, Luke S P Moore PhD, Jeroen Schouten PhD, Tomislav Kostyanev PhD, Vera Vlahović-Palčevski MD, Diamantis Kofteridis PhD, Juliana Silva Corrêa PhD, Prof Alison H Holmes MD

At the 2015 World Health Assembly, UN member states adopted a resolution that committed to the development of national action plans (NAPs) for antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The political determination to commit to NAPs and the availability of robust governance structures to assure sustainable translation of the identified NAP objectives from policy to practice remain major barriers to progress. Inter-country variability in economic and political resilience and resource constraints could be fundamental barriers to progressing AMR NAPs. Although there have been regional and global analyses of NAPs from a One Health and policy perspective, a global assessment of the NAP objectives targeting antimicrobial use in human populations is needed. In this Health Policy, we report a systematic evidence synthesis of existing NAPs that are aimed at tackling AMR in human populations. We find marked gaps and variability in maturity of NAP development and operationalisation across the domains of: (1) policy and strategic planning; (2) medicines management and prescribing systems; (3) technology for optimised antimicrobial prescribing; (4) context, culture, and behaviours; (5) operational delivery and monitoring; and (6) patient and public engagement and involvement. The gaps identified in these domains highlight opportunities to facilitate sustainable delivery and operationalisation of NAPs. The findings from this analysis can be used at country, regional, and global levels to identify AMR-related priorities that are relevant to infrastructure needs and contexts.