Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, 1 March 2017,
The past decade has witnessed a burst of study regarding antibiotic resistance in the environment, mainly in areas under anthropogenic influence. Therefore, impacts of the contaminant resistome, that is, those related to human activities, are now recognized. However, a key issue refers to the risk of transmission of resistance to humans, for which a quantitative model is urgently needed. This opinion paper makes an overview of some risk-determinant variables and raises questions regarding research needs. A major conclusion is that the risks of transmission of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans must be managed under the precautionary principle, because it may be too late to act if we wait until we have concrete risk values.
Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antibiotic Agent; Antibiotic Resistance; Antiinfective Agent; Bacteria; Bacterial Colonization; Bacterial Count; Bacterial Infection; Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Transmission; Bacterium; Bacterium Carrier; Contaminant Resistome; Disease Severity; Drug Effects; Drug Resistance, Bacterial; Environment; Environmental Management; Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Gene Transfer, Horizontal; Genetics; High Risk Patient; Horizontal Gene Transfer; Human; Humans; Infection Risk; Infective Dose; Intestine Flora; Limit Of Quantification; Metagenomics; Microbial Community; Microbial Diversity; Microbiology; Models, Theoretical; Multidrug Resistance; Nonhuman; Quantitative Study; Review; Risk Assessment; Risk Management; Theoretical Model; Transmission; Vector Bacteria; Waste Water Management