Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 214, 1 September 2020,
Background: Alcohol use disorder is a highly prevalent disease with multiple medications available for treatment. The overall prevalence of patients receiving pharmacotherapy is believed to be low and the characteristics and comorbidities that affect receipt are not well-established. Methods: We created a dataset from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database of patients with an outpatient encounter for alcohol abuse or dependence in 2014. We subsequently identified patient characteristics, comorbid medical, psychiatric, or substance use disorders, as well as encounter provider specialties and, using multivariable logistic regression, assessed which variables correlated with increased or decreased receipt of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder for this population. Results: In our dataset of 123,355 patients, patient receipt of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder was 3.3 %, and 9.3 % when restricted to the former diagnosis of alcohol dependence only. Male sex, younger age, alcohol-related liver disease, and cannabis use disorders correlated with decreased receipt whereas comorbid major depressive disorders and anxiety disorders correlated with increased receipt. Compared to patients seen by psychiatrists, those seen by primary medical doctors had a lower odds of receiving pharmacotherapy. Conclusions: Pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder is an underutilized treatment modality with a low prevalence of prescription in insured individuals. Patients with specific characteristics and comorbidities are less likely to receive this treatment and greater focus on these patients and in the primary care setting can allow for increased prescribing of these medications.
Adolescent; Adult; Age; Aged; Alcohol Abuse; Alcohol Dependence; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Liver Disease; Alcohol Use Disorder; Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome; Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy; Alcoholism; Amphetamine; Amphetamine Dependence; Anxiety Disorder; Anxiety Disorders; Article; Benzodiazepine; Bipolar Disorder; Cannabis; Cannabis Addiction; Chronic Pancreatitis; Cocaine; Cocaine Dependence; Comorbidities; Comorbidity; Controlled Study; Correlational Study; Depressive Disorder, Major; Drug Dependence; Female; Gastritis; Human; Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection; Humans; Insurance; Liver Cirrhosis; Major Clinical Study; Major Depression; Male; Middle Aged; Mood Disorder; Opiate; Opiate Addiction; Outpatient; Outpatients; Personality Disorder; Pharmacotherapy; Physician; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Prevalence; Priority Journal; Psychiatrist; Psychosis; Sedative Agent; Sex; Substance-Related Disorders; Tobacco Dependence; Global