Neuron, Volume 102, 3 April 2019,
Threat processing is central to understanding debilitating fear- and trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Progress has been made in understanding the neural circuits underlying the “engram” of threat or fear memory formation that complements a decades-old appreciation of the neurobiology of fear and threat involving hub structures such as the amygdala. In this review, we examine key recent findings, as well as integrate the importance of hormonal and physiological approaches, to provide a broader perspective of how bodily systems engaged in threat responses may interact with amygdala-based circuits in the encoding and updating of threat-related memory. Understanding how trauma-related memories are encoded and updated throughout the brain and the body will ultimately lead to novel biologically-driven approaches for treatment and prevention. Threat processing is central to understanding posttraumatic stress disorder and other fear- and stress-related disorders. Maddox et al. describe recent progress in this area, understanding the neural circuits underlying trauma-related memories encoded throughout the brain and the body.
Amygdala; Arousal; Association; Benzodiazepine Derivative; Beta Adrenergic Receptor; Beta Adrenergic Receptor Blocking Agent; Brain; Central Amygdaloid Nucleus; Central Nucleus (amygdala); Circuit; Conditioning; Corticotropin Releasing Factor; Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; Emotion; Estrogen; Ethinylestradiol Plus Norgestrel; Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing; Fear; GABAergic System; Glucocorticoid; Glucocorticoid Receptor; Glucocorticoids; Heart Rate Variability; Hippocampus; Hormonal Regulation; Human; Humans; Hypothalamus; Infralimbic Cortex; Interneuron; Interneurons; Interoception; Levonorgestrel; Long Term Depression; Memory; Memory Consolidation; Mental Stress; Metabolism; Nerve Cell Plasticity; Neuroimaging; Nonhuman; Noradrenalin Release; Ogestrel; PTSD; Pathophysiology; Physiology; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Prefrontal Cortex; Prepulse Inhibition; Priority Journal; Psychological Trauma; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Psychotrauma; Recall; Reinforcement; Review; Sexual Assault; Stress; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic; Stress, Psychological; Thalamus; Threat; Vagus Nerve Stimulation; Vagus Tone; Virtual Reality; Global