Introduction and Objectives: In clinical trials, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)1a infection and baseline resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, or 93 receiving elbasvir/grazoprevir for 12 weeks achieved lower rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) than those without baseline RASs. SVR rates in patients with RASs were improved when elbasvir/grazoprevir treatment duration was extended from 12 to 16 weeks and administered concomitantly with ribavirin. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational analysis using electronic health record abstraction. Patients with HCV GT1a infection and RASs at positions 28, 30, 31, or 93 who were prescribed 16 weeks of elbasvir/grazoprevir and ≥ 1 prescription for ribavirin were included. SVR was defined as HCV RNA below the lower limit of quantification ≥ 70 days after end of treatment. Results: The primary analysis included patients with baseline RASs at positions 30, 31, or 93 (n = 76); a secondary analysis included patients with RASs at positions 28, 30, 31, or 93 (n = 93). SVR was achieved by 77.6% (59/76) of patients in the primary analysis and 80.6% (75/93) of those in the secondary analysis. Of the 18 (19.4%) patients in the secondary cohort who failed to achieve SVR, 8 relapsed (4 with treatment-emergent NS5A substitutions) and 10 did not have viral sequencing to distinguish relapse from reinfection. Conclusions: This analysis highlights the opportunities in leveraging real-world data to further understand treatment outcomes in smaller, discrete subgroups of patients with HCV infection who cannot be thoroughly evaluated in clinical trials.
Annals of Hepatology, Volume 28, 1 March 2023,