An empowerment model for managing menopause

Elsevier, The Lancet, 2024, ISSN 0140-6736,
Martha Hickey, Andrea Z LaCroix, Jennifer Doust, Gita D Mishra, Muthusamy Sivakami, Deborah Garlick, Myra S Hunter

Menopause eventually happens to all people with typically functioning ovaries, and almost one billion women worldwide are postmenopausal. Although the biology of typical menopause is ubiquitous, the experience varies substantially. Factors contributing to the experience include not only individual factors, such as the nature and severity of symptoms, but also psychological, social, and contextual considerations, many of which are modifiable. In this first paper in the Lancet Series on menopause, we argue for a new approach that goes beyond the treatment of specific symptoms, to encompass a broad model to support women transitioning this life stage, using the model of empowerment. WHO defines empowerment as an active process of gaining knowledge, confidence, and self-determination to self-manage health and make informed decisions about care. Rather than focusing on menopause as an endocrine deficiency, we propose an empowerment model that recognises factors modifying the experience, in which the patient is an expert in their own condition and the health-care worker supports the patient to become an equal and active partner in managing their own care.

This is the first in a Series of four papers about menopause. All papers in the Series are available at