Future of Asian Deltaic Megacities under sea level rise and land subsidence: current adaptation pathways for Tokyo, Jakarta, Manila, and Ho Chi Minh City

Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 50, June 2021
Cao A., Esteban M., Valenzuela V.P.B., Onuki M., Takagi H., Thao N.D. et al.

Sea level rise and land subsidence — induced flooding are projected to have severe impacts on highly populated Asian deltaic cities. These cities are already suffering from frequent floods, though few comparative analyses have been conducted on the similarities and differences of their adaptation approaches. Thus, this study aims to investigate the current adaptation pathways of Asian deltaic cities to flooding induced by slow onset events such as urbanization-induced land subsidence and sea level rise, by looking at Tokyo, Jakarta, Manila, and Ho Chi Minh City as case studies. Evidence from them shows that an engineering approach towards flooding adaptation is shaping the future of Asian deltaic cities. However, emerging challenges question the sustainability of this approach. Recommendations on how to improve current adaptation pathways and direction for future research are also provided.