Hematologic cancers in individuals infected by HIV

Elsevier, Blood, Volume 139, 17 February 2022
Carbone A., Vaccher E., Gloghini A.

HIV infection increases cancer risk and is linked to cancers associated to infectious agents classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lymphomas represent one of the most frequent malignancies among individuals infected by HIV. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma remains a leading cancer after the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The incidence of other lymphomas including Burkitt lymphoma, primary effusion lymphomas, and plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity remain stable, whereas the incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated multicentric Castleman disease has increased. The heterogeneity of lymphomas in individuals infected by HIV likely depends on the complexity of involved pathogenetic mechanisms (ie, HIV-induced immunosuppression, genetic abnormalities, cytokine dysregulation, and coinfection with the gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and KSHV) and the dysregulation of the immune responses controlling these viruses. In the modern cART era, standard treatments for HIV-associated lymphoma including stem cell transplantation in relapsed/refractory disease mirror that of the general population. The combination of cART and antineoplastic treatments has resulted in remarkable prolongation of long-term survival. However, oncolytic and immunotherapic strategies and therapies targeting specific viral oncogenes will need to be developed.