Influential role of 7-Ketocholesterol in the progression of Alzheimer's disease

Elsevier, Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 156, October 2021
Mahalakshmi K., Parimalanandhini D., Sangeetha R., Livya Catherene M., Beulaja M., Thiagarajan R. et al.
Millions of people are affected by neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. They occur due to the loss of brain functions or peripheral nervous system dysfunction. If untreated, prolonged condition ultimately leads to death. Mostly they are associated with stress, altered cholesterol metabolism, inflammation and organelle dysfunction. Endogenous cholesterol and phospholipids in brain undergo auto-oxidation by enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic modes leading to the formation of by-products such as 4-hydroxynonenal and oxysterols. Among various oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol (7KCh) is one of the major toxic components involved in altering neuronal lipid metabolism, contributing to inflammation and nerve cell damage. More evidently 7KCh is proven to induce oxidative stress and affects membrane permeability. Loss in mitochondrial membrane potential affects metabolism of cell organelles such as lysosomes and peroxisomes which are involved in lipid and protein homeostasis. This in turn could affect amyloidogenesis, tau protein phosphorylation and accumulation in pathological conditions of neurodegenerative diseases. Lipid alterations and the consequent pathogenic protein accumulation, results in the damage of cell organelles and microglial cells. This could be a reason behind disease progression and predominantly reported characteristics of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on the role of 7KCh mediated neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease with emphasis on alterations in the lipid raft microdomain. In addition, current trends in the significant therapies related to 7KCh inhibition are highlighted.