Viruses are a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Human norovirus and hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis E (HEV)) are recognised to be the main viruses of importance to public health. The ISO 15216 procedure describes molecular methods for detecting HAV and norovirus in bottled water by using an electropositive filter to concentrate viruses. The aim of this study was to validate the Zeta Plus 1MDS membrane (1MDS) for detecting enteric viruses from tap and bottled water using the recent international standard ISO/DIS/16140-4:2018, which describes the protocol for validating methods for microbiology in the food chain. Method with direct lysis of viruses from the 1MDS filter, and RNA extraction was used for detecting noroviruses, HAV and HEV from different tap and bottled drinking water. By taking into account virus's inoculation levels above the LOD, the recovery rates of noroviruses and HAV obtained from pure RNA extracts ranged from 2.50% to 14.31% and for HEV from 27.87% to 53.54% according to the water samples analysed. The virus recovery rates did not differ according to the operator or drinking water analysed but did according to the virus inoculated. The LOD95 values were respectively 50 genome copies/mL for HAV and 2.8 genome copies/mL for HEV, 420 genome copies/mL for norovirus GI and 134 genome copies/mL of water sample for norovirus GII. LOQs were determined for HAV and HEV by the total error approach and were 15.8 genome copies/mL for HAV and 2.8 genome copies/mL of water sample for HEV. The described method could be used for detecting viruses from tap and bottled water for routine diagnosis needs.
International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 377, 16 September 2022,