Nutrition in Cancer: Evidence and Equality

Elsevier, Advances in Radiation Oncology, Volume 5, 1 September 2020
Haskins C.P., Champ C.E., Miller R., Vyfhuis M.A.L.
Purpose: Poor nutrition is highly implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and affects the survival of patients during and after completion of definitive therapies. Mechanistic evidence accumulated over the last century now firmly places dysregulated cellular energetics within the emerging hallmarks of cancer. Nutritional intervention studies often aim to either enhance treatment effect or treat nutritional deficiencies that portend poor prognoses. Patients living within food priority areas have a high risk of nutritional need and are more likely to develop comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, renal disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Unfortunately, there is currently a paucity of data analyzing the impact of food priority areas on cancer outcomes. Methods: Therefore, we performed a review of the literature focusing on the molecular and clinical interplay of cancer and nutrition, the importance of clinical trials in elucidating how to intervene in this setting and the significance of including citizens who live in food priority areas in these future prospective studies. Conclusions: Given the importance of nutrition as an emerging hallmark of cancer, further research must be aimed at directing the optimal nutrition strategy throughout oncologic treatments, including the supplementation of nutritious foods to those that are otherwise unable to attain them