Potential toxic elements in market vegetables from urban areas of southwest Nigeria: Concentration levels and probabilistic potential dietary health risk among the population

Elsevier, Journal of Trace Elements and Minerals, Volume 1, 2022, 100004
Clement Oluseye Ogunkunle, Rofiat Adenike Obidele, Nimatallah Omotolani Ayoola, Gideon Olarewaju Okunlola, Abdulfatai Babatunde Rufai, Olusanya Abiodun Olatunji, Adewole Tomiwa Adetunji, Mahboob Adekilekun Jimoh,

Contamination of urban-garden vegetables with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a great problem in developing countries. This study assessed the level of PTEs (Cu, Pb, Cr and Cd) in market-sold vegetables in southwest Nigeria and evaluated the estimated daily intake (EDI) to understand the health implications. Level of PTEs in 80% samples exceeded the FAO/WHO permissible limits. The EDI for Pb exceeded the permissible limit by 1.8% and 5.4% in adults and children, respectively. m hazard quotient (HQ) of Pb in adults exceeded USEPA limit by 3-fold. The HQchildren for Cu, Pb and Cr exceeded USEPA limit by 1.5-, 6.9- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Hazard index for adults and children exceeded the recommended value by 11- and 3-fold, respectively. Cancer risk of Pb, Cr and Cd in adults and children exceeded the USEPA limit. Conclusively, consumption of vegetables in this region of Nigeria portends potential human risk to adults and children.