Recent advances of green nanoparticles in energy and biological applications

Elsevier, Materials Today, Volume 72, 1 January 2024
El-Esawy M.A., Elsharkawy S., Youssif M.M., Raafat Tartour A., Ramadan Elsharkawy F., Ahmed Saad Badr S. et al.

Biomedicine, agricultural, and energy applications play a significant role in the environment and humanity, and this is considered a significant worldwide challenge. Nanomaterials can be produced using a variety of traditional physical and chemical processes. It is now possible to biologically synthesize materials via environment-friendly green chemistry-based methods. In recent years, the convergence between nanotechnology and biology has created a new field of nanobiotechnology that incorporates the use of biological entities such as actinomycetes algae, bacteria, fungi, viruses, yeasts, and plants in a number of biochemical and biophysical processes to synthesize green nanoparticles. The biological synthesis via nanobiotechnology processes has a significant potential to boost nanoparticles’ production without the use of harsh, toxic, and expensive chemicals commonly used in conventional physical and chemical processes. Green nanoparticles help the biomedical field by paving the way for new strategies for the early detection of cancer and imaging modalities for treatment and have an important role as antibacterial agents and as enhancers for both the growth and quality of various crops. Green nanoparticles represent a promising type of active materials for energy production and storage devices such as batteries, super-capacitors, and water electrolyzers. Green nanoparticles represent an important solution for generating or storing energy in a cost-effective, ecological, and sustainable manner to fulfill future energy demands. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent trends in synthesizing nanoparticles via green methods and their activities in the biological applications such as anti-cancer drugs, crop improvement, and antimicrobial activity. Additionally, it indicates the catalytic activity of these green nanoparticles towards some energy applications such as batteries, water splitting, and supercapacitors.