SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater: From detection to evaluation

Elsevier, Materials Today Advances, Volume 13, March 2022
Zhang D., Duran S.S.F., Lim W.Y.S., Tan C.K.I., Cheong W.C.D., Suwardi A. et al.

SARS-CoV-2 presence in wastewater has been reported in several studies and has received widespread attention among the Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) community. Such studies can potentially be used as a proxy for early warning of potential COVID-19 outbreak, or as a mitigation measure for potential virus transmission via contaminated water. In this review, we summarized the latest understanding on the detection, concentration, and evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Importantly, we discuss factors affecting the quality of wastewater surveillance ranging from temperature, pH, starting concentration, as well as the presence of chemical pollutants. These factors greatly affect the reliability and comparability of studies reported by various communities across the world. Overall, this review provides a broadly encompassing guidance for epidemiological study using wastewater surveillance.