Critical congenital heart disease (cCHD) has neurodevelopmental sequelae that can carry into adulthood, which may be due to aberrant brain development or brain injury in the prenatal and perinatal/neonatal periods and beyond. Health disparities based on the intersection of sex, geography, race, and ethnicity have been identified for poorer pre- and postnatal outcomes in the general population, as well as those with cCHD. These disparities are likely driven by structural racism, disparities in social determinants of health, and provider bias, which further compound negative brain development outcomes. This review discusses how aberrant brain development in cCHD early in life is affected by reduced access to quality care (ie, prenatal care and testing, postnatal care) due to divestment in non-White neighbourhoods (eg, redlining) and food insecurity, differences in insurance status, location of residence, and perceived interpersonal racism and bias that disproportionately affects pregnant people of colour who have fewer economic resources. Suggestions are discussed for moving forward with implementing strategies in medical education, clinical care, research, and gaining insight into the communities served to combat disparities and bias while promoting cultural humility.
Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Volume 39, Issue 2, February 2023, Pages 133-143,