Elsevier, Health and Place, Volume 29, September 2014
Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod): (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term; (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets; (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use. This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation. © 2014 The Authors.
Article; Attitude To Health; Conservation Of Natural Resources; Demography; Ecology; Education; Environmental Factor; Environmental Protection; Environmental Sanitation; Ethnography; Funding; Gender; Global Public Health; Habit; Habits; Health Care Policy; Himachal Pradesh; Human; Humans; India; Political System; Priority Journal; Procedures; Public Health; Public Health Problem; Public Health Service; Residence Characteristics; Rural Area; Rural Population; Sanitation; Social Interaction; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomics; Standards; Statistics And Numerical Data; Sustainable Development; Toilet; Toilet Facilities; Toilet Tripod; Water Quality; West Bengal; Middle East