Advances in Immunology, Volume 143 - Chapter Two - Antibody responses to the HIV-1 envelope high mannose patch

Elsevier, Advances in Immunology Volume 143, 2019, Pages 11-73
Christine N. Daniels, Kevin O.Saunders

Neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus subtype 1 (HIV-1) bind to its envelope glycoprotein (Env). Half of the molecular mass of Env is carbohydrate making it one of the most heavily glycosylated proteins known in nature. HIV-1 Env glycans are derived from the host and present a formidable challenge for host anti-glycan antibody induction. Anti-glycan antibody induction is challenging because anti-HIV-1 glycan antibodies should recognize Env antigen while not acquiring autoreactivity. Thus, the glycan network on HIV-1 Env is referred to as the glycan shield. Despite the challenges presented by immune recognition of host-derived glycans, neutralizing antibodies capable of binding the glycans on HIV-1 Env can be generated by the host immune system in the setting of HIV-1 infection. In particular, a cluster of high mannose glycans, including an N-linked glycan at position 332, form the high mannose patch and are targeted by a variety of broadly neutralizing antibodies. These high mannose patch-directed HIV-1 antibodies can be categorized into distinct categories based on their antibody paratope structure, neutralization activity, and glycan and peptide reactivity. Below we will compare and contrast each of these classes of HIV-1 glycan-dependent antibodies and describe vaccine design efforts to elicit each of these antibody types.