Advances in Virus Research Volume 87 - Chapter Six: Genetic Variation and HIV-Associated Neurologic Disease

Elsevier, Advances in Virus Research, Volume 87, 2013
Dahiya S., Irish B.P., Nonnemacher M.R., Wigdahl B.

HIV-associated neurologic disease continues to be a significant complication in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A substantial subset of the HIV-infected population shows impaired neuropsychological performance as a result of HIV-mediated neuroinflammation and eventual central nervous system (CNS) injury. CNS compartmentalization of HIV, coupled with the evolution of genetically isolated populations in the CNS, is responsible for poor prognosis in patients with AIDS, warranting further investigation and possible additions to the current therapeutic strategy. This chapter reviews key advances in the field of neuropathogenesis and studies that have highlighted how molecular diversity within the HIV genome may impact HIV-associated neurologic disease. We also discuss the possible functional implications of genetic variation within the viral promoter and possibly other regions of the viral genome, especially in the cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, which are arguably key cellular players in HIV-associated CNS disease. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.