Cerebrospinal Fluid and Subarachnoid Space - Chapter 25: Aqueductal stenosis

Elsevier, Cerebrospinal Fluid and Subarachnoid Space Volume 2 : Pathology and Disorders 2023, Pages 401-414
Lekhaj C. Daggubati and S. Hassan A. Akbari

Aqueductal stenosis is a known cause of hydrocephalus, with a presumed incidence of 5-10 cases per 10,000. Aqueductal stenosis can be separated into idiopathic cases and cases secondary to factors such as genetics, infection, tumor, or hemorrhage. These secondary factors may result in anatomically smaller aqueducts, scarring at the aqueduct, or compression on the aqueduct. Stenosis at the aqueduct causes changes in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics, resulting in anatomic and pathophysiological changes that drive ventricular expansion. Age-related signs and symptoms may develop and radiographic findings show changes in ventricular and cerebral architecture. Ventricular shunting or the endoscopic third ventriculostomy may help relieve intracranial pressure caused by aqueductal stenosis.