Previously, cities used a combination of public health interventions and technological advancements to overcome infectious disease challenges. The dynamic and multifaceted challenges cities face today, including health security and pandemic preparedness, require new, pragmatic approaches. To this end, and as discussed in previous chapters, cities around the world are proactively preparing for what they perceive to be the greatest health threats, exercising plans and conducting simulations, actively reviewing the response to actual events to inform future actions, and creating new tools and approaches for addressing infectious disease threats. Other trends and approaches that could also factor into improving urban health security include urban networks – which may benefit the sharing of knowledge and resources, as well as transform the governance of urban public health – and innovative financing models – which will be required for building and sustaining urban health security capacities. While none of the specific approaches and models discussed in this volume represent a panacea, if used in combination, they could substantially improve both local and global health security and prepare our world for future health security threats.
Inoculating Cities, Case Studies of Urban Pandemic Preparedness, 2021, Pages 227-233,