Chapter 16 - Cell death in Alzheimer disease brain and tryptamine-treated cells: microscopy

Elsevier, Microbial Metabolism and Disease, 2021, 1e, Pages 193-213
Elena L. Paley

This chapter integrates the data from our lab and others—both at the homogenate and single cell and the single cell organelle levels—to define relative contributions of various pathways and subpathways to cell death and cell survival in Alzheimer disease and other associated health conditions using an integrative hypothesis testing approach. Abundant vesicularization revealed in brain of Alzheimer patients with antibodies to tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase is an indicator of cytotoxicity similar to tryptamine-induced cytotoxicity in cultured human neuronal cells. Taken into account that tryptamine readily crosses the blood–brain barrier, tryptamine can be a low molecular weight molecule that causes both acute and chronic cytotoxicity in human brain as well as seizures and convulsions. Serotonin syndrome, which can be life-threatening, is increasingly common but not well recognized by physicians. The tryptamine-induced serotonin syndrome is not recognized by physicians but well recognized by scientists. Tryptamine excretion in systemic sclerosis is discussed.