Chapter 23 - Alzheimer's disease

Elsevier, Oxidative Stress: Its Mechanisms and Impacts on Human Health and Disease Onset, 2023, Pages 291-297
Harold I. Zeliger

Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that is the most prevalent source of dementia in the elderly. Though primarily affecting those above age 65, Alzheimer's disease is increasingly being observed in younger people starting from around age 40. Cognitive impairment caused by this disease progresses from mild, wherein one does not suffer significant barriers to functioning in daily activities or work to where participation in life's activities becomes problematical. Alzheimer's disease is not reversible or curable. The hallmarks of this disease are: extracellular amyloid-β plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation, synaptic impairment and neuronal loss. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease include genetic, epigenetic, lifestyle (smoking, dietary choices and others), environment (air pollution, pesticide, heavy metal and radiation exposure) and pre-existing conditions (chronic inflammation and numerous diseases). All Alzheimer's disease risk factors, as well as the mechanism for onset and progression, are related to elevated oxidative stress.