Poverty affected an estimated 902 million people (12.8%) globally in 2012 based upon the international poverty line, established by the World Bank. An association between poverty, or low income, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been established worldwide. Poverty has also been associated with important precursors and risk factors for CKD and these relationships vary across socio-demographic groups, including those separated by geographic location, race, or ethnicity. Provided in this chapter, is a summary of recent studies of the relation of poverty to CKD and related outcomes. The potential causal linkages between poverty and CKD are vast, and include, limited access to healthful foods, increased psychosocial stress and limited access to health care. Thus, these perhaps more directly biologically putative consequences of poverty are also discussed as potential risk factors for CKD.
Chronic Kidney Disease in Disadvantaged Populations, 2017, Pages 209-217,