Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, the virus that causes HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), has caused cases of infection recognized in the United States since the late 1970s. As scientists seek a cure for HIV, much has been learned about the interaction of the virus and the immune system. Recent advances in therapies used as tools for HIV treatment and prevention have resulted in a worldwide decrease in new infections, and public health campaigns are aimed at reducing new cases to a level signaling the end of the HIV epidemic. While organs and tissue systems may be damaged not only by HIV but also by the treatment of HIV with antiretroviral medications, people living with HIV can live a normal life span with appropriate medical management. The new epidemic affecting humankind, the novel coronavirus disease that emerged in 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 (CoV-2), is disrupting HIV treatment and prevention programs worldwide and has laid bare health and healthcare disparities and inequalities existing in rich and poor countries alike. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the HIV epidemic have yet to be realized.
Clinical Immunology (Sixth Edition) Principles and Practice 2023, Pages 525-541,