Ebola Virus (Filoviridae)

Elsevier, Encyclopedia of Virology (Fourth Edition), Volume 2, 2021, Pages 232-244
Andrea Marzi, Logan Banadyga

Ebola virus (EBOV) belongs to the Filoviridae family, which also includes Sudan, Bundibugyo, Taï forest, Reston, Lloviu, Bombali, Měnglà and Marburg viruses. Like all filoviruses, EBOV is a filamentous, non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA virus with a replication cycle similar to that of rhabdoviruses. EBOV is endemic in Central Africa and causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans characterized by fluid distribution problems, hypotension, and coagulation disorders, all of which contribute to the development of a fulminant shock. Uncontrolled viral replication, impaired immune system and vascular dysregulation, are important pathogenic factors. Although no licensed treatment is available to treat disease, vaccines have recently been licensed in Europe, the USA and elsewhere.