Elsevier, Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, 2017, Pages 3-22
Water pollution is one of the key global environmental challenges of the 21st century due to discharges of toxic substances from anthropogenic activities. Numerous new chemicals/compounds and their by-products are often detected in water bodies all over the world. This article demonstrates the major water pollutants of incipient concern, their source, and fate. Several other issues such as detection, monitoring, and predicting their long-term toxic effects because of their trace concentrations, small size, and migration characteristics are also detailed. Moreover, water pollution-controlling methods and life-cycle assessment of wastewater are reviewed.