Encyclopedia of Virology, Fourth Edition: Management of Hepatitis A and E Virus Infection

Fig. 1. Geographic distribution of HAV infections. HAV: colors represent different endemic patterns based on the age at which 50% of the population is HAV IgG positive [red: very highly endemic (< 5 years); orange: highly endemic (5–14 years); light green
Elsevier, Encyclopedia of Virology (Fourth Edition) Volume 5, 2021, Pages 206-216
Sébastien Lhomme, Florence Abravanel, Jean-Marie Peron, Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet

The hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the commonest causes of viral hepatitis worldwide. They are enterically transmitted. Several HEV genotypes are zoonotic while others infect only humans. The clinical spectra of HAV and HEV differ, but both acute infections are managed with general supportive care. Chronic infections, HEV only, require specific antiviral treatment based on ribavirin. HAV infections are best prevented by ensuring adequate sanitation and active or passive immunization. HEV infections are also prevented by adequate sanitation in developing countries and on good personal hygiene measures in developed countries, especially cooking at-risk food thoroughly.