Fate of Biological Contaminants During Recycling of Organic Wastes - Chapter 14: Insight on the prevalence of pathogens present in the municipal solid waste of sanitary landfills, dumpsites, and leachate

Elsevier, Fate of Biological Contaminants During Recycling of Organic Wastes, 2023, Pages 279-295
Rituparna Addy, Ajay Kalamdhad, Vaibhav Vasant Goud

Landfill is the main repository of municipal solid waste (MSW), and globally, landfilling is performed as one of the common practices of depositing waste materials. The heterogeneous solid waste and the generated leachate can be tremendous sources of pathogens, such as bacteria, virus, and parasites, and the pathogens are exposed in the form of bioaerosols. There are some vectors or hosts carrying such pathogens that can also infect the waste workers, and their families, who are working and living in the dumpsite areas or in the vicinity slum regions. The workers are exposed to the risk of several ailments, such as respiratory, dermatological, and gastrointestinal issues. The enteric viruses mainly come from the food waste, pet feces, absorbent products, and biosolids materials of landfills. Several studies have mentioned the presence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and B and C viruses, poliovirus, and F + coliphages in the landfill area. Detection and analysis for virus can be confirmed by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) techniques, and metagenomic analysis, reported in various literatures. However, more advanced in the form of fast and efficient techniques are required to report the viral entities qualitatively and quantitatively. Lack of personal protection, masks, gloves, and poor hygienicity contribute to the risk of getting infected when exposed to wastes full of pathogens. This chapter emphasizes the presence of pathogens, particularly virus, in the waste and leachate materials of some landfills, and also on the waste management, awareness, precaution, needed to be considered to overcome the diseases caused by viral particles.