Unlike compounds that can be broken down, the remediation of most inorganic pollutants like toxic metals requires removal from contaminated sources. Bioremediation makes use of plants/microorganisms to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of metals and other inorganic pollutants in the environments. Bioremediation strategies usually include phytoextraction (or phytoaccumulation), phytofiltration, phytostabilization, phytovolatilization, phytodegradation, and microbe-based bioremediation. In this chapter, we elucidate the concept of bioremediation and compare the available bioremediation technologies that are currently being applied for remediation of inorganic pollutants from contaminated environments. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to review the challenges and opportunities of the bioremediation for remediating inorganic pollutants from contaminated media. In view of above the present chapter brings current bioremediation techniques together to compare, understand, and apply these strategies effectively to exclude inorganic pollutants from contaminated environments, keeping in view the effectiveness and economics of bioremediation strategies.
Handbook of Bioremediation, 2021.,