International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology Volume 335 - Chapter Six: Transcription: Insights From the HIV-1 Promoter

Elsevier, International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, Volume 335, 2018
Ne E., Palstra R.-J., Mahmoudi T.

In this review, we cover transcription regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression, focusing on the invaluable contributions, made by HIV research over the years, toward the field of transcription. In this context, the HIV promoter can be considered to be a well-studied model promoter, which although a viral promoter, is subject to the same cellular regulatory mechanisms that modulate the transcriptional control of endogenous host cellular genes. The molecular control of HIV-1 transcription has been well studied and considerable knowledge toward development of alternative strategies for therapies aimed at eradicating both active but also latent HIV-1 has been obtained. Additionally, HIV-1 studies have provided insight into fundamental aspects of transcriptional regulation including transcriptional stochasticity, RNA polymerase II pausing, chromatin regulation of transcription, the role of the + 1 nucleosome, the use of an RNA enhancer element, i.e., TAR, the discovery, and essential function of P-TEFb, and the super elongation complex in transcription elongation. These findings have been important not only in deciphering the mechanisms used by HIV-1 to regulate its gene expression and to establish and maintain HIV latency for therapeutic advancement, but were at the same time seminal in pushing the transcription field forward.