Among different mitochondrial toxic agents, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been proposed as a mitochondrial aggressor that induces cellular damage through mitohormesis disturbances. Antiretroviral treatment associated to HIV reduces morbimortality related to the natural history of the infection. However, it also contributes to the mitochondrial toxicity that, added to the mitochondrial toxic effects of the basal infection, leads to adverse clinical secondary effects. Fortunately, new antiretroviral families and drugs with lesser mitochondrial toxic profiles are being developed to decrease these secondary effects. Thus, increasing treatment safety and adherence, while maintaining efficacy. The present chapter of this book explains the different contribution to the mitochondrial toxic profile produced either by the virus or by the antiretroviral treatment.
Mitochondrial Intoxication 2023, Pages 351-378,